Cystoscopy is an endoscopy of the bladder and urethra. This procedure enables your doctor to examine the lining of the lower part of your uro-genital tract for any abnormalities. During the test, biopsies can be taken. Biopsies are small samples of tissue. An anatomical pathologist then examines the samples for any abnormalities. During cystoscopy, we can perform associated procedures (endoscopic correction of vesico-ureteral reflux; injection of Botox; section of urethral valves).